Connect with us

Anglais

Fear the flu shot? How ‘avoidance behaviour’ can impact public health

Published

on

[ad_1]

Getting a flu shot each year is something that’s easy to avoid — you’re too busy, don’t often get sick or generally don’t go out of your way to receive a jab in the arm.

But for some, that avoidance is for a reason they might not want to readily admit: They are afraid of needles.

While a fear of needles may be most typically associated with children getting their pre-kindergarten immunizations — children in Canada receive about a dozen vaccinations before the age of six — a recent study shows that 25 per cent of adults are afraid of needles too.

And for seven per cent of adults, it is their main reason for avoiding the annual flu shot.

With the flu season upon us, doctors are urging Canadians to get their shots, to protect against an illness that causes 3,500 deaths in the country each year.

But only a little over one-third of Canadian adults got the vaccination during the 2016-2017 flu season.

Anna Taddio is a clinical pharmacist and expert in children’s pain who is currently researching how to reduce fear of needles in youth. (Chris Sorensen/University of Toronto)

« Most adults who are afraid [of needles] stay under the radar, » said Anna Taddio, a clinical pharmacist and senior associate scientist at Toronto’s Sick Kids hospital. « They don’t talk about it, but their avoidance behaviour has an impact on their health care. »

It can also have some potentially huge consequences on public health.

Avoidance of vaccines can lead to greater transmission of illnesses or pathogens in the community, the postponing of blood tests can lead to diagnosis delays, people may dodge dental work until a crisis happens, or they may refuse to donate blood — all due to a fear of needles.

Fear often linked to childhood

At first glance, 48-year-old Dennis Gillis doesn’t seem like someone who would have a needle phobia. But the engineer, longtime runner and father of three has lived since childhood with a fear of needles, which is formally known as trypanophobia.

« Something [traumatic] happened when I was four or five years old, and needles have been a source of huge anxiety since, » said Gillis. « I even used to pass out. »  

That fear has made the Halifax man avoid flu shots for decades, and his blood work requisitions have been collecting dust.

According to Taddio, a traumatic experience between the ages of four and eight is « the typical scenario behind a fear of needles. »

Children in Canada receive about a dozen vaccinations before the age of six. For many, the fear of needles links back to a traumatic experience in childhood. (AFP/Getty Images)

Taddio, an expert in children’s pain, is currently leading an interdisciplinary team studying pain management during vaccination. She recently received a $1 million grant to support her ongoing research into how to reduce fear of needles in youth.

Much of the research on the memory of pain and trauma explores how fears can develop in childhood, and get reinforced in adulthood through behaviours like avoidance.

« What avoidance does, in the long term, is to fuel the fear and makes it worse. Most adults with needle fear can link it to a bad childhood experience, » said Dr. Melanie Noel, a psychologist and assistant professor at the University of Calgary whose research is focused on children’s anxiety and memories of pain.

« Research shows that when you are scared of something, like needles, it will increase the pain you feel. The pain becomes worse in your memory than it was during the procedure. »

But if that pain is managed properly, she said « you are more likely to buffer the negative memories, and create less scary memories. »

The importance of pain-management tools

Although almost all scientific literature about the prevention and management of needle phobia involves children, Noel says there is no reason to think that topical creams and anxiety-control methods, such as relaxation, meditation and distraction, couldn’t help adults too. The research has simply not been done yet.

Many barriers stand in the way of convincing people of the importance of managing needle-related pain and anxiety, Noel said.

« The societal view is that it is just a little poke, suck it up. There is an expectation that adults should just deal with it, » she said. « But most did not acquire any tools when they were kids, so now that they have control and agency, they avoid needles. »

« I have been accused of creating a generation of wimps, » said Dr. Christine Chambers, a clinical psychologist and professor at Dalhousie University, who has done extensive work in the field of pediatric pain, including around needles specifically.

Using props, like a pinwheel, during a needle procedure can both distract a child and teach them breathing techniques to cope with pain or anxiety. (David Laughlin/CBC)

Chambers was the driving force behind the « It Doesn’t Have to Hurt » campaign, which launched in 2013 with a goal of improving pain management for children.

Chambers is currently collecting data on coping strategies used by adults during needle procedures to fill what she says is a gap in the research.

« There is a difference between managing pain and fear, » she said, noting that already-available solutions often aren’t used.

« Once a person develops pathological anxiety, pain management strategies will stop working. There are treatments for needle phobia, too, but few people realize it can be treated. »

While some patients fear the pain, others fear the needle itself, says Taddio, who suggests that the phobia should be addressed head on.

« The best way to approach someone is to ask: ‘What exactly are you afraid of?' » she said. « To treat people with dignity, offer them some control over the procedure, and make the whole experience more pleasant to gain their trust back. »

Techniques to try

Noel suggests health-care providers can do three things — before, during and after  an injection — to help with needle anxiety.

« Offer relaxation, to give the tools [they need] to feel in control. Manage the pain, to help with the pain experienced and buffer the scary memories. And reframe the memory by asking positively focused questions, showing the control the person had [at the time] and catching exaggeration, » she said.

Slow, deep breathing, the use of guided imagery (such as visualizing a happy place), and distraction tools (like playing a game on a smartphone) are all simple techniques that can help decrease the anxiety and pain associated with a needle procedure.

Parents also can guide their children through some of those techniques, using props like pinwheels, bubbles, books and tablets.

Need techniques to overcome your fear of needles? This psychologist shows you a few options:

Dr. Lindsay Uman of the IWK Health Centre’s complex pain team shows a patient distraction and relaxation techniques. 2:42

After all, pain and trauma-free needle experiences in childhood, combined with education on coping strategies, will go a long way toward helping future generations not be afraid of getting their necessary shots later in life.

As for Gillis, he said « mindfulness meditation, counting and focusing on my breathing » is what best helps him when it comes to needles. « I can now get annual blood work and a flu shot without passing out. »

Becoming a father has also changed his priorities, he said, as he realized he had to get over his fear so he could stay healthy for his children.

« I used to wake up to people panicking around me because I had passed out — not prepared to help, calling 911, » Gillis said. « But no one ever asked me: ‘Are you afraid of needles?' »

Situations like that only fed his anxiety, he said, making it worse for the next time he faced a needle.

As with many medical issues, prevention is often the best medicine.

[ad_2]

Source link

قالب وردپرس

Anglais

‘Business as usual’ for Dorel Industries after terminating go-private deal

Published

on

By

MONTREAL — Dorel Industries Inc. says it will continue to pursue its business strategy going forward after terminating an agreement to go private after discussions with shareholders.

« Moving ahead. Business as usual, » a spokesman for the company said in an email on Monday.

A group led by Cerberus Capital Management had previously agreed to buy outstanding shares of Dorel for $16 apiece, except for shares owned by the family that controls the company’s multiple-voting shares.

But Dorel chief executive Martin Schwartz said the Montreal-based maker of car seats, strollers, bicycles and home furniture pulled the plug on a deal on the eve of Tuesday’s special meeting after reviewing votes from shareholders.

“Independent shareholders have clearly expressed their confidence in Dorel’s future and the greater potential for Dorel as a public entity, » he said in a news release.

Dorel’s board of directors, with Martin Schwartz, Alan Schwartz, Jeffrey Schwartz and Jeff Segel recused, unanimously approved the deal’s termination upon the recommendation of a special committee.

The transaction required approval by two-thirds of the votes cast, and more than 50 per cent of the votes cast by non-family shareholders.

Schwartz said enhancing shareholder value remains a top priority while it stays focused on growing its brands, which include Schwinn and Mongoose bikes, Safety 1st-brand car seats and DHP Furniture.

Dorel said the move to end the go-private deal was mutual, despite the funds’ increased purchase price offer earlier this year.

It said there is no break fee applicable in this case.

Montreal-based investment firm Letko, Brosseau & Associates Inc. and San Diego’s Brandes Investment Partners LP, which together control more than 19 per cent of Dorel’s outstanding class B subordinate shares voiced their opposition to the amended offer, which was increased from the initial Nov. 2 offer of $14.50 per share.

« We believe that several minority shareholders shared our opinion, » said Letko vice-president Stephane Lebrun, during a phone interview.

« We are confident of the long-term potential of the company and we have confidence in the managers in place.”

Continue Reading

Anglais

Pandemic funds helping Montreal businesses build for a better tomorrow

Published

on

By

Many entrepreneurs have had to tap into government loans during the pandemic, at first just to survive, but now some are using the money to better prepare their businesses for the post-COVID future.

One of those businesses is Del Friscos, a popular family restaurant in Dollard-des-Ormeaux that, like many Montreal-area restaurants, has had to adapt from a sit-down establishment to one that takes orders online for takeout or delivery.

“It was hard going from totally in-house seating,” said Del Friscos co-owner Terry Konstas. “We didn’t have an in-house delivery system, which we quickly added. There were so many of our employees that were laid off that wanted to work so we adapted to a delivery system and added platforms like Uber and DoorDash.”

Helping them through the transition were emergency grants and low-interest loans from the federal and provincial governments, some of which are directly administered by PME MTL, a non-profit business-development organization established to assist the island’s small and medium-sized businesses.

Konstas said he had never even heard of PME MTL until a customer told him about them and when he got in touch, he discovered there were many government programs available to help his business get through the downturn and build for the future. “They’ve been very helpful right from day one,” said Konstas.

“We used some of the funds to catch up on our suppliers and our rents, the part that wasn’t covered from the federal side, and we used some of it for our new virtual concepts,” he said, referring to a virtual kitchen model which the restaurant has since adopted.

The virtual kitchen lets them create completely different menu items from the casual American Italian dishes that Del Friscos is known for and market them under different restaurant brand names. Under the Prasinó Soup & Salad banner, they sell healthy Greek options and their Stallone’s Sub Shop brand offers hearty sandwiches, yet the food from both is created in the same Del Friscos kitchen.

Continue Reading

Anglais

Downtown Montreal office, retail vacancies continue to rise

Published

on

By

Some of downtown Montreal’s key economic indicators are heading in the wrong direction.

Office and retail vacancies in the city’s central core continued to climb in the fourth quarter of 2020, according to a quarterly report released Thursday by the Urban Development Institute of Quebec and the Montréal Centre-Ville merchants association. The report, whose first edition was published in October, aims to paint a socio-economic picture of the downtown area.

The survey also found office space available for sublet had increased during the fourth quarter, which may foreshadow even more vacancies when leases expire. On the residential front, condo sales fell as new listings soared — a sign that the downtown area may be losing some of its appeal to homeowners.

“It’s impossible not to be preoccupied by the rapid increase in office vacancies,” Jean-Marc Fournier, the former Quebec politician who now heads the UDI, said Thursday in an interview.

Still, with COVID-19 vaccinations set to accelerate in the coming months, “the economic picture is bound to improve,” he said. “People will start returning downtown. It’s much too early to say the office market is going to disappear.”

Public health measures implemented since the start of the pandemic almost a year ago — such as caps on office capacity — have deprived downtown Montreal of more than 500,000 workers and students. A mere 4,163 university and CEGEP students attended in-person classes in the second quarter, the most recent period for which figures are available. Border closures and travel restrictions have also brought tourism to a standstill, hurting hotels and thousands of local businesses.

Seventy per cent of downtown workers carried out their professional activities at home more than three days a week during the fourth quarter, the report said, citing an online survey of 1,000 Montreal-area residents conducted last month.

Continue Reading

Chat

Anglais2 semaines ago

‘Business as usual’ for Dorel Industries after terminating go-private deal

Anglais2 semaines ago

Pandemic funds helping Montreal businesses build for a better tomorrow

Anglais2 semaines ago

Downtown Montreal office, retail vacancies continue to rise

Anglais2 semaines ago

Learjet, the private plane synonymous with the jet-set, nears end of runway

Anglais2 semaines ago

Brivia Group announces the construction of Phase 2 of LB9 rental condo project

Anglais2 semaines ago

With popcorn sales banned, some movie theatre owners say it’s not worth it to reopen

Actualités2 semaines ago

À partir de 2025, toutes les voitures de Jaguar seront 100 % électriques

Actualités2 semaines ago

Forte augmentation des demandes de remboursement de voyage

Actualités2 semaines ago

Le textile reste un fléau pour l’environnement malgré de nombreuses initiatives écologiques

Actualités2 semaines ago

L’Agence de mobilité durable et Jalon s’unissent

Actualités2 semaines ago

Un village à reconstruire au coeur de Pointe-aux-Trembles

Actualités2 semaines ago

Le centre-ville de Montréal continue de se vider

Actualités2 semaines ago

Recommandations de la Commission sur les locaux vacants La vitalité du secteur commercial au cœur des priorités de la Ville

Actualités2 semaines ago

Un cabinet d’avocats ne peut pas déduire les frais d’un mariage, dit la Cour

Actualités2 semaines ago

Financement pour deux entreprises de Dorval et Lachine

Actualités2 semaines ago

Les friperies observent une augmentation en popularité

Actualités1 mois ago

Logo du CF Montréal : quatre experts se prononcent

Actualités1 mois ago

De nouveaux logements sociaux pour les femmes autochtones à Montréal

Actualités1 mois ago

Invasion montréalaise !

Actualités1 mois ago

L’hôtel de ville de Sept-Îles pourrait être détruit

Anglais2 années ago

Body found after downtown Lethbridge apartment building fire, police investigating – Lethbridge

Styles De Vie2 années ago

Salon du chocolat 2018: les 5 temps forts

Anglais2 années ago

This B.C. woman’s recipe is one of the most popular of all time — and the story behind it is bananas

Anglais2 années ago

27 CP Rail cars derail near Lake Louise, Alta.

Anglais2 années ago

Man facing eviction from family home on Toronto Islands gets reprieve — for now

Santé Et Nutrition2 années ago

Gluten-Free Muffins

Santé Et Nutrition2 années ago

We Try Kin Euphorics and How to REALLY Get the Glow | Healthyish

Anglais2 années ago

Ontario’s Tories hope Ryan Gosling video will keep supporters from breaking up with the party

Anglais2 années ago

A photo taken on Toronto’s Corso Italia 49 years ago became a family legend. No one saw it — until now

Anglais2 années ago

Condo developer Thomas Liu — who collected millions but hasn’t built anything — loses court fight with Town of Ajax

Styles De Vie2 années ago

Renaud Capuçon, rédacteur en chef du Figaroscope

Anglais2 années ago

This couple shares a 335-square-foot micro condo on Queen St. — and loves it

Mode2 années ago

Paris : chez Cécile Roederer co-fondatrice de Smallable

Anglais2 années ago

Ontario Tories argue Trudeau’s carbon plan is ‘unconstitutional’

Styles De Vie2 années ago

Ford Ranger Raptor, le pick-up roule des mécaniques

Affaires2 années ago

Le Forex devient de plus en plus accessible aux débutants

Anglais2 années ago

100 years later, Montreal’s Black Watch regiment returns to Wallers, France

Technologie2 années ago

YouTube recommande de la pornographie juvénile, allègue un internaute

Anglais2 années ago

Trudeau government would reject Jason Kenney, taxpayers group in carbon tax court fight

Anglais2 années ago

Province’s push for private funding, additional stops puts Scarborough subway at risk of delays

Trending