Autism controversy, confusion and what lies ahead for Ontario families


Lisa MacLeod, minister of children, community and social services, said sweeping changes are necessary to clear the therapy wait list of 23,000 kids within 18 months and make the program fiscally sustainable.

“Today, almost three out of every four children who require autism supports continue to be stranded on wait lists,” she told reporters at a Feb. 6 news conference in Toronto. “We are introducing reforms to provide them with the fairness and equality they deserve.”

The Star consulted experts, advocates and government officials and websites to answer some questions about autism and what lies ahead for Ontario families.

Five regional centres across Ontario, including Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital in Toronto, have behaviour analysts who are specially trained to diagnose children from about age 2.

Evidence shows that when children start behavioural intervention between ages 2 and 5, they gain improvements in cognitive and language development, are better prepared for school and have better long-term outcomes in adulthood, the ministry notes.

There are currently 2,400 children waiting — many for up to two years — for a publicly funded diagnosis from one of the five diagnostic hubs. Families unwilling to wait can pay for a diagnosis from a trained professional.

What is the government doing about the wait list for diagnosis?

The government has doubled funding for diagnostic hubs to $5.5 million over two years to ensure children are being diagnosed in a timely way.

How many children in Ontario have autism?

The latest research shows roughly 1 in 66 Ontario children have autism, or about 40,000 kids under age 18.

How many children are being treated now?

About 8,400 children are receiving needs-based treatment funded by the Ontario Autism Program, set up in 2017 by the previous Liberal government.

What is the bill for taxpayers?

The annual budget is $321 million. The government added an additional $100 million this year. But MacLeod has said it is one-time funding and changes are needed to make the program fair for families and sustainable for taxpayers.

What is Applied Behavioural Analysis, or ABA therapy?

ABA is the most effective evidence-based treatment for children with autism and is used with varying intensity, depending on a child’s needs.

The therapy uses repetition and positive reinforcement to help children master life and social skills, such as dressing and having a conversation. In intense intervention, therapists work one-on-one with children to break down skills into small teachable steps. Once a skill has been mastered, the therapist works on helping the child use the skill in a natural setting.

For example, a child may be taught to request a favourite toy during a therapy session and then be encouraged to repeat the skill during a play date.

How much does it cost?

Children diagnosed with moderate to severe autism may require between 20 and 40 hours a week of ABA therapy, which can cost between $50,000 and $80,000 a year.

What is a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst (BCBA)?

A BCBA holds a master’s degree in a related field such as psychology, behaviour analysis or education. To become “board certified,” — an American certification — individuals must complete about two years of formal training in behaviour analysis, 1,500 hours of supervised practice and pass board exams.

For some children, ABA therapy is overseen by a clinical supervisor with a PhD in behaviour analysis or related field.

How is the government planning to clear the therapy wait list?

Instead of needs-based funding for a few children, managed by regional service agencies, the government will give money directly to all families so they can choose the services they want.

Funding will be capped based on age and targeted to lower- and middle-income families.

How can the money be used?

Unlike the previous program that limited public funds to evidence-based ABA therapy and parent training only, families will be able to use the money on “behavioural services such as assessments and consultations, family/caregiver capacity building and training, respite services, technology aids, and travel,” the government’s website says.

Does the government regulate behavioural therapists like nurses and doctors?

No. By April 1, the government will create an online list of “verified qualified service providers” that will be available to help families access behavioural services, according to the website. Before April 2021, families can work with clinical supervisors who are not on the list, as long as they are working towards their qualifications. After that time, all clinical supervisors will have to meet program qualifications.

How will families get their money?

Currently, parents apply to one of nine regional autism service agencies for either publicly funded behaviour therapy, or for funding they can use to buy services from private clinics. The amount of therapy or direct funding a family receives is based on the severity of the child’s diagnosis and the behaviour plan drawn up by a recognized professional. Families are served in order of their application date.

Under the new model, families will receive autism program funding through an independent intake agency which the ministry says will be set up within the next year. The new agency will help families register for the program, assess their funding eligibility, approve their “childhood budgets” and help them choose which services to purchase.

Families will no longer need a behaviour plan because funding will be based solely on their child’s age and household income.

Starting April 1, kids under age 6 will receive up to $20,000 a year. Those over 6 will get $5,000 a year. Childhood budgets up to age 18 will be capped at $140,000 for kids entering the program under age 6 while lifetime funding for those entering at older ages will be limited to $55,000.

Funding will be income-tested with more money going to lower-income families. Although the ministry has not yet said what family income would receive the full amount, households above $250,000 will no longer qualify for funding.

Eligibility and the amount of funding a family receives will be reviewed annually, according to the ministry website.

Details on how families will receive their funding, eligible expenses and the reconciliation process will be available by April, 1, according to ministry officials.

How will the program be managed until the new intake agency is set up?

Starting April 1, government officials will help families register for the new childhood budgets, although it is not yet clear how they will get access to the wait lists, which are currently held by the nine regional service agencies. Nor is it clear how newly diagnosed children will be registered.

“All these details are still being worked out and will be available before April 1,” a government official said.

What happens to the 8,400 families already receiving publicly funded services?

New behaviour plans will continue to be developed until March 31, according to the government. If existing behaviour plans end after that date, government officials will help families apply for a childhood budget.

Ministry officials say there are no plans to put children currently receiving support back onto a wait list. All children who have a behaviour plan will continue to receive the services outlined in that plan until the plan’s end date.

Any money families have already received through the Ontario autism program will not be deducted from the new childhood budgets.

Families with questions can call the province’s toll-free autism services line at 1-888-284-8340 or consult

Laurie Monsebraaten is a Toronto-based reporter covering social justice. Follow her on Twitter: @lmonseb


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Trudeau moves to shore up Liberal caucus support as SNC-Lavalin controversy continues


Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has moved to shore up support in his Liberal caucus as the aftershocks of Jody Wilson-Raybould’s resignation from cabinet rocked both Parliament Hill and members of his own party.

Multiple caucus sources told CBC News that Trudeau convened an extraordinary caucus meeting by telephone Tuesday evening to reassure them that nothing untoward had taken place in his office’s interactions with Wilson-Raybould over the SNC-Lavalin case when she was justice minister.

But unlike the party’s normal caucus meetings, this was a one-way call — with Trudeau doing the talking. Caucus members were not able to ask Trudeau questions. MPs were told to follow up with the PMO or regional offices.

MPs on the call that spoke to CBC News on condition their names not be used said they believed Trudeau when he told them neither he nor the PMO had pressed Wilson-Raybould. 

Multiple MPs also told CBC News that while there was a consensus in caucus that Wilson-Raybould should no longer sit at the cabinet table, there was no justifiable reason to remove the MP for Vancouver-Granville from the Liberal caucus. 

The unusual call to Liberal MPs came as Trudeau’s government scrambled to deal with the aftershocks of Wilson-Raybould’s abrupt resignation Tuesday as Veterans Affairs minister. 

Her resignation came only days after a Globe and Mail report, quoting anonymous sources, said members of the Prime Minister’s Office tried to get Wilson-Raybould to help Quebec construction giant SNC-Lavalin avoid criminal prosecution on bribery and fraud charges through a Deferred Prosecution Agreement (DPA).

The SNC-Lavalin case is before a court in Montreal, charged with fraud and corruption in connection with payments of nearly $48 million to public officials in Libya under Moammar Gadhafi’s government and allegations it defrauded Libyan organizations of an estimated $130 million. Its preliminary hearing is scheduled to resume Friday.

To date, the director of public prosecutions has refused to allow the company to avoid a trial by negotiating a DPA or remediation agreement.

‘I do wish her well’

During the political firestorm that followed the report, Wilson-Raybould refused to comment on the case, saying she was still bound by solicitor-client privilege.

MaryAnn Mihychuk, who served with Wilson-Raybould in cabinet until January 2017, said neither Trudeau nor his staff ever pressured her when she was minister of Employment, Workforce Development and Labour.

« I made a lot of change and I really pushed the envelope … I never had a call from the prime minister or the Prime Minister’s Office to push me in a certain direction. »

Some Liberal MPs suggested anonymously in media reports that Wilson-Raybould was difficult to deal with and didn’t have friends in caucus. Mihychuk said that’s not the case.

« I feel she’s a good friend and she is an amazing leader so I do wish her well. »

Mihychuk said Wilson-Raybould also worked closely with fellow cabinet minister Jane Philpott, who has supported Wilson-Raybould on social media in the wake of her resignation.

« Jane and Jody were a team right from the start. They were working immediately on assisted dying for Canada, which has been a really terrific program, helping a lot of people. But it was complicated, so they spent a lot of time together. »

Elizabeth Thompson can be reached at


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SNC-Lavalin and Trudeau: A primer on the controversy


The SNC-Lavalin scandal rocked Canadian politics this past week, culminating in the resignation of Veterans Affairs Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould on Tuesday.

But the scandal itself is complicated and has many implications.

Here’s a breakdown of the issues at play.

What does SNC-Lavalin do?

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SNC-Lavalin is an engineering and construction firm based in Montreal and was once considered one of the top engineering companies in the world.

Its work has included government contracts, mining, transportation and infrastructure. It gained a reputation for building a large dam in Quebec that spearheaded the province’s development of hydroelectricity and for developing the skill sets for thousands of Quebec workers.

Despite scandals, SNC-Lavalin viewed as crown jewel in Quebec: professor

It is still considered a crown jewel in Quebec, according to business experts.

According to its website, it was founded in 1911 and it employs 50,000 people around the world, including over 8,500 in Canada.

WATCH: David Lametti discusses the importance of AG role amid SNC-Lavalin controversy

What are the criminal charges?

In 2015, the RCMP charged SNC-Lavalin, along with its international division, with corruption and fraud in relation with their business dealings in Libya.

The RCMP said officials at the company attempted to bribe several public officials in the country, including dictator Moammar Gadhafi, as well as other businesses in Libya.

RCMP officials said SNC-Lavalin also lied to Libyan companies to defraud them of nearly $130 million.

If convicted, the company would be barred from bidding on federal projects for 10 years, and current federal contracts would be in jeopardy.

FROM THE ARCHIVE: RCMP lay fraud, corruption charges against SNC-Lavalin in 2015

What is the Prime Minister’s Office accused of doing?

SNC-Lavalin attempted to avoid a trial for the criminal charges, but in October, back when Wilson-Raybould was Canada’s attorney general and justice minister, federal prosecutors refused to negotiate a deal under a newly passed remediation agreement regime.

The remediation regime became law through Bill C-74 in June 2018 and would have imposed a fine in exchange for abandoning court proceedings. It allows corporations to skip a conviction and keep bidding on federal projects, which could protect the company from layoffs and financial troubles.

In a bombshell report, the Globe and Mail alleged SNC-Lavalin lobbied the PMO’s office to secure the remediation agreement.

The report said Wilson-Raybould was pressured to get federal prosecutors to change their refusal to negotiate remediation, but she was unwilling.

Trudeau called the allegations in the Globe report “false” and said no one in his office “directed” Wilson-Raybould to make any decision, but refused to comment when asked whether there had been any broader “influence” efforts

What Justin Trudeau has said about the SNC-Lavalin controversy

SNC-Lavalin filed an application for a review of the decision on remediation in October.

Wilson-Raybould was shuffled out of her position as justice minister and attorney general and made Minister of Veterans Affairs in January. Quebec MP David Lametti replaced her.

The ethics commissioner of Canada is looking into whether there was political interference in the case.

Other scandals

In 2011, an SNC employee whose job was to facilitate travel of SNC employees in and out of Libya was arrested in Mexico and accused of attempting to smuggle Gadhafi’s son and family out of the country. The employee was eventually released from jail and not charged in Canada.

In Switzerland, an ex-senior employee from SNC-Lavalin pleaded guilty to fraud, corruption and money laundering in relation to his business in Libya in 2014 — before the RCMP charges. Riadh Ben Aissa acknowledged in court that he bribed Saadi Gadhafi, son of Libya’s late dictator Moammar Gadhafi, so SNC could win contracts.

The company was also banned from bidding on projects by the World Bank for 10 years over alleged misconduct during a bridge construction contract in Panama. During an investigation from CBC and the Globe and Mail, it was alleged there was an internal accounting code for bribes. Officials were charged with fraud, but they were acquitted after a judge threw out wiretap evidence.

Closer to home, three top executives were also charged with bribery in relation to the McGill University Health Centre. Former CEO Pierre Duhaime, along with McGill officials, pleaded guilty in the case.

FROM THE ARCHIVE: SNC-Lavalin to reimburse municipalities, agencies in 2016

© 2019 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.


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Olympian Adam van Koeverden wins federal Liberal nomination amid controversy


Former Olympic flag-bearer Adam van Koeverden will be carrying the Liberal banner into the coming federal election, after securing the nomination in the southern Ontario riding of Milton on Sunday.

The 36-year-old kayaker, whose four Olympic medals are the most by any Canadian paddler, will be looking to defeat deputy Conservative leader Lisa Raitt, who has held the riding since its creation in 2015.

The decorated athlete, who carried the Canadian flag in both Athens and Beijing, declared his intention to try for the Milton nomination in October.

A website laying out the details of van Koeverden’s candidacy says his campaign will focus on traditional Liberal values with an emphasis on youth, sport, physical education and healthy communities.

The party says in a statement that the « long-time Liberal … received early support from a broad spectrum of community and business leaders in Milton and spent several weeks knocking on doors and meeting with the families within the riding. »

His nomination was not without controversy, as the party’s 2015 candidate, Azim Rizvee, claimed that Prime Minister Justin Trudeau pushed him to resign.

« Prime Minister Justin Trudeau personally told me and my wife very aggressively that Adam van Koeverden is his preferred candidate for the Milton riding, » Rizvee said in a statement Saturday.

« The Liberal party leadership did not allow me to contest the nomination so that [the] prime minister’s preferred candidate, Adam van Koeverden, can be nominated. »

A spokesman for the Liberals said the Milton nomination was held in accordance with the party’s nomination rules, and more than 800 Liberal members turned out to vote.

Braeden Caley declined to provide a breakdown of the results, but said the other nomination candidate was Mian Abubaqr, the president of the Milton riding association.


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Everything about Lyme disease is steeped in controversy. Now some doctors are too afraid to treat patients


Bruce Shilton’s crippling fatigue left him bedridden for six months. Sue Faber was so forgetful, she couldn’t remember her daughters’ birthdates. And Andrea Smith’s relentless aches sent her into a deep depression.

All three Canadians say they are struggling with a chronic form of Lyme disease and feel abandoned by Canada’s health-care system.

Sue Farber, left, Bruce Shilton and Andrea Smith suffer from a chronic form of Lyme disease.
Sue Farber, left, Bruce Shilton and Andrea Smith suffer from a chronic form of Lyme disease.  (Richard Lautens/Toronto Star |Cole Burston for the Toronto Star |Steve Russel/Toronto Star)

The challenge for them, and other patients with Lyme, is that the medical community is divided on how best to diagnose and treat this controversial disease.

On one side of this deep divide are mainstream doctors who say Lyme is easy to diagnose with standard testing, and the prevailing treatment — a short course of antibiotics — is enough to kill the bacteria that causes the disease. They believe patients who think they have chronic Lyme but have no evidence of infection are grappling with other illnesses and that treating for Lyme masks the real cause of their symptoms and does more harm than good.

On the other side are doctors who say this is an extremely complex disease. It is often called “The Great Imitator” because its symptoms mimic other diseases and can affect any part of the body, including the brain, heart and nervous system. They say the standard testing is flawed, resulting in missed cases and misdiagnosis, and if it’s not caught early the required treatment is longer antibiotic use.

In Canada, treatment is based on guidelines established in the United States. But several states have passed doctor-protection laws that allow physicians to treat Lyme more aggressively with longer-term antibiotics. Here, however, physicians typically refuse to treat chronic Lyme, or they do so quietly so that regulatory agencies don’t find out.

This leaves desperately ill patients with few options, which is especially troubling because research shows people with Lyme are at greater risk for suicide. They say they are met with outright disbelief from some doctors who refuse to treat it, and tell them to stop self-diagnosing with Dr. Google. With no relief for their debilitating symptoms from our health-care system, they go elsewhere — often to the U.S. — and pay big bucks for diagnosis and treatment.

It’s a polarizing issue at a time when warmer climate is facilitating the rapid spread of blacklegged ticks across Canada. Cases of Lyme disease, transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, are at record highs and expected to rise. Figures for 2018 aren’t yet available, but last year there were 2,025 confirmed and probable cases nationwide, up from 992 in 2016. By comparison, there were 144 cases in 2009. And health officials say the number affected is probably tenfold because the disease is underreported.

“Canada is a new frontier for Lyme disease,” says American investigative journalist Mary Beth Pfeiffer, the author of Lyme: The First Epidemic of Climate Change. “It is a disease that moves into an area, takes root and doesn’t leave.”

Ticks are a greater nuisance in the summer, when people are more likely to venture into brushy and wooded areas. But they’re still around in winter, hiding out in leafy litter.

“Be aware,” says entomologist Curtis Russell, a senior program specialist at Public Health Ontario. “If it’s above 0 C and there’s no snow, blacklegged ticks can still be out and active.”

Earlier this year, the Star wrote about the spike in Lyme cases and about a provincial report by the Lyme Disease and Tick-borne Illnesses Task Force. The task force was appointed by the Ministry of Health to identify ways to improve the health of those living with Lyme. It addressed how patients say the disease is going undetected, misdiagnosed and insufficiently treated. Among its key recommendations is the need to review current testing methods and treatment guidelines. That story drew close to 100 heart-wrenching messages from readers. People were too sick to work, forced into early retirement and had spent their savings on treatment. To better understand this issue, the Star spoke with people on both sides of the divide.

A long-time lawyer and judge, Bruce Shilton stepped down from the bench on a disability leave. He couldn't continue working so he retired.
A long-time lawyer and judge, Bruce Shilton stepped down from the bench on a disability leave. He couldn’t continue working so he retired.  (Cole Burston)

Bruce Shilton was cutting grass at the family cottage in the Muskoka Lakes when he suddenly felt unsteady and had to sit down.

“It was like this big cloud rolled in.”

He didn’t know it, but that cloud was the first hint of a storm brewing deep within him that would uproot his life.

It was 1998 and Shilton was 49. The father of three had always been active, coaching hockey, T-ball and soccer. But after that unusual episode, he came down with what felt like “the worst flu of my life.”

Around this time, he was appointed as a judge of the Ontario Court of Justice. It should have been a happy time in his life. But he was inexplicably growing weaker, grappling with fatigue, brain fog and headaches. At one point, he lost 20 pounds in two weeks. By 2000, he was actively searching for answers. He saw more than 25 specialists in Ontario — including infectious disease experts, neurologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, gastroenterologists, urologists and chronic fatigue specialists — and underwent a battery of tests.

One of those tests was for Lyme disease. It’s been around for thousands of years, but was first described in the mid-1970s, when Yale University scientists researched a mysterious outbreak of arthritis among adults and children in Lyme, Conn. A bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted through ticks, was the culprit. The ticks pick up the bacteria during blood meals, feeding on animals such as white-footed mice, deer and birds, then pass it on to humans. Ticks must be attached for 36 hours to transmit the bacteria to a human.

If Lyme is suspected early, a clinical diagnosis should be made based on whether the patient has a rash that sometimes resembles a bull’s-eye, flu-like symptoms, possible tick exposure and whether Lyme is endemic to the region. Antibiotics should be started immediately and this treatment usually results in a full recovery.

The classic bulls-eye rash that indicates a person has likely been bitten by a tick carrying Lyme disease.
The classic bulls-eye rash that indicates a person has likely been bitten by a tick carrying Lyme disease.  (James Gathany)

The only diagnostic test for Lyme recognized by Canadian, American and European public health authorities, is a two-tiered test. The first test is called an ELISA — enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. If it’s positive, or indeterminate, then a Western Blot test is done. Both must be positive for a Lyme diagnosis. But because they test for antibodies — and antibodies take four to six weeks to develop in the body — they’re not good at picking up early infection.

Shilton didn’t remember a tick. But they are tiny — adults are the size of a sesame seed — and their bites are painless. And he didn’t remember a rash, but not everyone develops it. However, the wooded area around his cottage was ideal habitat for blacklegged ticks, which moved north from the U.S. into Canada, hitching rides on birds and deer, and are now thriving here. They were first spotted in the province in the 1990s in Long Point Provincial Park on Lake Erie, and now are found throughout most of southern and eastern Ontario.

Shilton wondered if the illness had gone undetected for years, spreading and hiding in different parts of the body, making treatment more challenging. But he tested negative. Medical experts were baffled. Shilton grew sicker.

Once a whip-smart lawyer — he was a prosecutor for 13 years and defence lawyer for 11 years — Shilton struggled as a judge, wrestling with fatigue and headaches. In 2004, he stepped down from the bench on a disability leave and couldn’t continue working so he retired. At one point, he was bedridden for six months because of fatigue.

“I couldn’t even walk to the mailbox at the end of my driveway,” he says. “It just totally overtook my life.”

Read More:

Research shows Lyme disease under-detected across Canada

Lyme disease cases hit record highs across Canada as tick populations expand

How to protect yourself from growing risk of Lyme disease

In 2007, Shilton’s doctor sent his blood to a commercial lab in the U.S. This time, he tested positive.

But many in Canada’s medical community don’t accept results of foreign commercial labs because their validation data is not made public, says Tara Moriarty, an associate professor at the University of Toronto and a Lyme disease researcher.

Tara Moriarty is an associate professor at the University of Toronto and a Lyme disease researcher.
Tara Moriarty is an associate professor at the University of Toronto and a Lyme disease researcher.  (Picasa)

“These companies have been found to return false-positive Lyme disease results for as many as 60 per cent of samples submitted from people who have never had Lyme disease,” says Moriarty. “(That means) at least half of the people diagnosed with Lyme disease do not actually have this infection.”

She admits there are limitations to the two-tiered test and that there are efforts underway in Canada to ensure we know the types of strains that are present. But she cautions against using for-profit commercial labs.

That’s echoed by Dr. Todd Hatchette, president of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada (AMMI Canada), which represents physicians, clinical microbiologists and researchers specializing in medical microbiology and infectious diseases.

“I do feel for people who are suffering from chronic non-specific symptoms and looking for an answer,” says Hatchette, a medical microbiologist and infectious disease physician in Nova Scotia. “But assuming it’s Lyme disease based on nonstandardized testing and alternative methods is not necessarily the best thing for them, because it may prevent them from going on to getting diagnosed with something that can actually be treated.

“If the (two-tiered) tests are not positive, you should be looking for another cause,” he says.

But Vett Lloyd, a biology professor at Mount Allison University in New Brunswick, says most Lyme cases are missed with the standard test. She recently co-authored a study with Dr. Ralph Hawkins, a clinical associate professor at the University of Calgary. Using data from New Brunswick they found the two-tiered tests miss 90 per cent of real Lyme infections. In Ontario, she says about 80 per cent of cases are missed.

“That’s a lot of sick people who are getting negative test results who are being told it’s not Lyme disease, look elsewhere,” says Lloyd. “It’s expensive for the medical system and devastating for the health of those individuals.”

Lloyd says the two-tiered testing is dated and ineffective because it’s based on an older strain of the Lyme disease bacteria, which has evolved and mutated over the years.

Jyotsna Shah is president and CEO of IGeneX, a California commercial laboratory that is the leading alternative Lyme disease testing lab. She says the company’s methods are better at detecting infection than the two-tiered tests recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She says IGeneX looks for more strains of the bacteria, so if someone was bitten in another country it will get picked up because their tests look for bacteria and antibodies. And it covers the full spectrum of disease. It is better at detecting infection early on as well as in the later chronic stage of the disease, when a person may be too sick to make the antibodies the two-tiered tests look for.

“The two-tiered misses a lot of cases,” she said. “We probably (detect) most cases.”

“The tests we have developed so far are very sensitive and very specific,” she said, adding, “We follow the strictest guidelines and we make sure our tests are properly validated.”

Shah said “the false positive is not an issue with us.”

In the summer, New York State’s health department certified the company’s latest Lyme tests for use by physicians after a rigorous process.

Dr. Maureen McShane, who runs a practice in Plattsburgh, N.Y., specializing in Lyme and other tick-borne infections, such as Bartonella and Babesia, calls the two-tiered test a “setup for failure.” She uses IGeneX. But, she says, doctors shouldn’t rely on testing to begin treatment. They should make a clinical diagnosis, which is why “all Canadian doctors, and all U.S. doctors, should be familiar with symptoms of chronic Lyme disease.”

Unable to get treatment in Canada, Shilton saw McShane in New York. But he didn’t have the energy to travel there for regular treatment. In 2011, he started seeing a naturopath in the Toronto area, who’s treated him ever since. It’s been a “a roller-coaster ride,” he says, with periods of feeling good and bad.

“I’m not anywhere near normal,” says Shilton, 69, who lives in the Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville. “But I have some quality of life now, which I haven’t had in a long time.”

He goes to gym a few times week, occasionally plays golf, and last year went on a family vacation to Florida. And, he’s much more social, accepting invitations to dinners and small gatherings.

He calls Lyme “the million-dollar bite.” That’s how much it has cost him in lost salary and treatment costs, the latter amounting to $150,000.

“I’m fortunate,” he says, adding he can afford treatment. “There are many, many, many who aren’t and they suffer in silence, with disabilities and have zero quality of life.”


Sue Faber in her home office in front of a wall of research materials on the disease. Faber, a nurse, has been battling Lyme for many years.
Sue Faber in her home office in front of a wall of research materials on the disease. Faber, a nurse, has been battling Lyme for many years.  (Richard Lautens)

In August 2015, Sue Faber hit a breaking point.

For more than a dozen years she had seen an array of specialists for unexplained unusual symptoms — fatigue, forgetfulness, eye floaters, brain fog, a racing heart and a right foot that sometimes dragged. But every blood test, electrocardiogram, ultrasound, MRI and CT scan was negative.

Weeping she begged her doctor, “Is there anything, anything, anything you can think of?’ ” the 41-year-old nurse from Burlington asked.

Her doctor handed over a requisition form for blood work and for the first time requested the lab check for Lyme.

That proved fateful.

The first of the two-tier test, the ELISA, was positive, but the Western Blot was negative.

An infectious disease specialist suspected the ELISA test was a false positive. But Faber urged the doctor to run another Western Blot test, checking for European Lyme, since she had travelled there.

The test was positive.

Finally, a diagnosis. She had late-stage disseminated chronic Lyme disease, which meant the bacteria had spread throughout her body. She was started on daily intravenous antibiotic treatment.

“Within a few days, this brain cloud of fog started to lift,” she says. “It was unbelievable.”

But it didn’t last. When the treatment ended, Faber’s symptoms returned, along with new ones, including numbness in the tongue, tingling in the hands and a buzzing sensation in her legs.

Faber wanted back on the meds. But the specialist refused. That’s because mainstream doctors typically follow the prevailing treatment guidelines developed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), which have been adopted in various countries, including here, where they are promoted by AMMI Canada. They recommend short-term antibiotic use of up to four weeks, with a second course needed sometimes. That should be enough to kill the Lyme bug in most cases, although an estimated 10 to 20 per cent of patients remain ill with what’s called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.

However, other doctors follow the competing guidelines of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS), which is a multidisciplinary medical society that says long-term antibiotics are needed to fight the infection.

“Because there is so much disagreement on that one fact, it has really stymied research and put patients in a position where they can’t get care,” says Pfeiffer, who began writing about Lyme in 2012 and is the only investigative reporter to cover this issue who hasn’t had Lyme disease.

In the U.S. — an estimated 30,000 cases of Lyme are reported annually, but the real number affected may be 300,000 — patient groups have been successful in getting several states to legislate protection for Lyme doctors, letting them determine treatment. Initially, some thought the new laws would have other doctors feeling more comfortable with treating Lyme, but it’s unclear if this has been the case.

“These laws are not fully protective and doctors are still very leery of treating Lyme disease,” says Pfeiffer, who knows of at least one doctor in New York who has been sanctioned. “There are far too few doctors who are willing to treat Lyme disease (in the U.S), other than the hastily diagnosed and hastily treated case.”

Lorraine Johnson, CEO of in the U.S., says “physician-protection laws do have the effect of providing a safety net for physicians who treat and that encourages them to follow their conscience.” But she added, Americans still experience a “severe access-to-care problem.”

“We have a problem in the United States, but Canada has that problem squared.”

In Ontario, New Democrat MPP Michael Mantha, a longtime advocate for Lyme patients and part of the provincial task force on Lyme, believes thousands of Canadians have sought treatment in the U.S., some spending hundreds of thousands of dollars. He also knows of people who have gone to Belgium, France and Germany.

He says that while doctors in Ontario do benefit from physician-protection laws, they are hamstrung by the prevailing guidelines. He’d like doctors to have more flexibility in choosing treatment guidelines, adding he’s in favour of anything that will benefit patients.

“Patients are suffering and Lyme disease is real,” says Mantha (Algoma-Manitoulin), who became passionate about the issue after hearing a heartbreaking story from a constituent whose daughter was denied treatment.

Professor Lloyd, of New Brunswick, has had Lyme disease and cancer.

“Both were terrifying,” says Lloyd. “But no one ever argued with me about whether I really had cancer. I was treated with compassion.”

By comparison, Canadian doctors didn’t believe she had Lyme and refused to treat her. They suggested she had Multiple Sclerosis and that she go into a nursing home for the rest of her life because her physical abilities were degenerating. Instead, she went to the U.S., was treated with long-term antibiotics and fully recovered. Lloyd doesn’t know if the bacteria is gone or dormant, capable of flaring up again.

Faber also headed to the U.S., where a doctor in Albany, N.Y., restarted her on antibiotics. Two years later, she’s still on them. To date, she has spent about $30,000 on testing, treatment and medical appointments.

“I’m functional and able to work again,” says the mother of three, who tears up when talking about the devastating toll of Lyme. At one point, she couldn’t remember the birthdates of her children.

AMMI Canada president Hatchette says long-term antibiotic use has never been proven effective and when administered intravenously can be risky, resulting in potentially fatal bloodstream infections.

“At least five randomized controlled trials have looked at prolonged therapy, after the traditional four weeks of therapy, and none of those people in the treatment group did any better than those who received the placebo,” he says.

So how does he explain patients who say they feel better after longer treatment?

“The natural history of (chronic illness) is it tends to wax and wane. It can get worse and it can get better. And we don’t know why,” he says. “There are also anti-inflammatory effects to antibiotics that have nothing to do with treating infection that might be helping an underlying inflammatory condition. And there’s also the placebo effect.”

Last year, a study by Tulane University researchers revealed some monkeys infected with Lyme and treated with the standard four weeks of antibiotics still had the bacteria in their organs up to a year later. And a couple of monkeys actually tested negative for Lyme, but researchers then found the Lyme bacteria in their heart and bladder. The study seems to support claims by patients that the standard testing isn’t always accurate and symptoms will linger after treatment.

Overall, it’s been tough for researchers to explore problems with standard treatments because they can’t get their projects funded or articles published in mainstream medical journals, says Pfeiffer. However, change is coming. More online medical journals are making it easier to get published and non-profit foundations, such as Global Lyme Alliance, have the money to pay for research, she says.

McShane, of Plattsburgh, has seen the benefits of long-term antibiotic treatment in herself and her patients, some of whom she has treated for up to five years. But, she adds, you won’t read about that in major medical journals.

McShane was bitten by a tick while gardening in 2002, and developed flu-like symptoms. Doctors couldn’t explain her deteriorating health, then one of her patients, with similar symptoms, told her he had been successfully treated by Dr. Richard Horowitz, a top Lyme physician in the U.S. Horowitz put McShane on antibiotics for two years, and she recovered.

“If I had not found Dr. Horowitz, I would be in a wheelchair by now,” McShane says. “I was falling, having speech problems, stuttering, choking on my own saliva, facial twitches, weakness, chest pains, shortness of breath.”

Her experience inspired her to open her own practice in 2009. Since then, she has treated around 3,000 people with both antibiotics and herbs. About 90 per cent of her patients are Canadian, 50 per cent of whom are “very angry” with the public health system in Canada and the doctors who refuse to treat them. Her patients include entire families — the reason for that is some research shows Lyme may be transmitted sexually and in utero, she says.

“We need to do long-term studies,” she said. “We’re talking about the health of our future generation.”

Similarly, Faber’s ordeal propelled her into advocacy work. Last year, she co-founded LymeHope, a not-for-profit that provides education to the public and medical community. She has since collected 2,700 letters written by Canadians with Lyme on their struggles with the health-care system and hand-delivered them to the federal health minister’s office. She has launched an online petition that has more than 82,000 signatures calling on government to recognize the seriousness of this disease and take action. And she was the driving force behind the Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario passing a resolution to advocate, at all levels of government, for the integration of ILADS treatment guidelines.

“What we’ve been asking for all along is action that is grounded in identified needs by patients,” says Faber. “There are massive chasms, with patients on one side and doctors on the other. We have to bridge this gap.”


Andrea Smith suffers from chronic Lyme. She first started feeling unwell in 2009. Since the summer of 2017 she has been treated with a combination of herbal and antibiotic treatment and had been feeling much better until this fall. She is confident "this will get figured out."
Andrea Smith suffers from chronic Lyme. She first started feeling unwell in 2009. Since the summer of 2017 she has been treated with a combination of herbal and antibiotic treatment and had been feeling much better until this fall. She is confident « this will get figured out. »  (Steve Russell)

In August 2017, Andrea Smith walked out of a Toronto clinic feeling like a doctor finally had the tools needed to help her.

“It was a huge relief,” says Smith, who had for years bounced among specialists, doctors, naturopaths, criss-crossing between Canada and the U.S. for treatment.

The 49-year-old, who runs a microbrewery on Manitoulin Island on Lake Huron, had finally found someone equipped to deal with Lyme, which she calls “a Pandora’s Box.”

It’s a box she first opened in 2009, while visiting a friend in B.C. She developed a round, expanding rash and felt like she had the flu. Back home, the symptoms worsened. There was muscle and joint pain, extreme fatigue, tingling, headaches, gastrointestinal pain, dizziness, brain fog and her body temperature was out of whack, leading to day and night sweats.

For Smith, who was active running half-marathons, the pain and discomfort became unbearable. She grew depressed and filled with despair.

Doctors didn’t know what was wrong with Smith. None ever asked about a rash, which is characteristic of Lyme, and she never thought it important to mention.

After a two-tiered test came back negative, blood work at IGeneX suggested Lyme. Her doctor gave her the standard antibiotic treatment but wasn’t able to do more.

Jim Wilson, president of the advocacy group Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation (CanLyme), says even though some patients benefit from long-term treatment, doctors won’t go against the prevailing IDSA guidelines because they’re “afraid” of being “policed” by the regulatory colleges, he says.

“We’ve had doctors tell patients, ‘I believe you do have Lyme disease, but I cannot treat you. I have children at home, I’m putting my kids through college, I can’t afford to lose my licence,’” says Wilson.

He says there’s been a chilling effect, with some physicians refusing to treat Lyme or doing so quietly because they don’t want a target on their back.

Bruce Shilton, the retired judge, had actually found two doctors in the Toronto area who would treat Lyme. But shortly after, they were both investigated by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO), prompting one to give up his medical licence and the other to stop seeing Lyme patients altogether.

In Ontario, the CPSO says since 2011 there have been 10 Lyme-related investigations. Eight were launched after patients, or their families, complained doctors did not properly diagnose or treat their Lyme and did not take their concerns seriously. Two investigations were for doctors who treated Lyme.

In general, Wilson says, about 2 per cent of all Canadian doctors face some kind of investigation by their provincial medical colleges. But when it comes to Lyme disease, nearly all doctors known to diagnose and treat Lyme outside the prevailing guidelines have come under scrutiny.

Dr. Ben Boucher is one of them. He was questioned by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia after two specialists complained that he interfered in the care of their patients. He maintains he just provided a second opinion, but says regulators threatened him with a competency assessment. So after 35 years he closed his Port Hawkesbury practice in 2013. Between 2006 and 2013, he estimates that he treated about 200 Canadians with long-term antibiotics who had travelled there to see him. When he closed his doors, there were about 100 Canadians on the wait list to see him for Lyme treatment.

The way he was treated served as a warning to other doctors, he says.

“It was a signal that you should be very careful treating Lyme and that you should follow their antiquated (IDSA) guidelines,” says Boucher.

When it comes to other infections that require antibiotics, such as pneumonia, acne or cellulitis, patients are treated until the condition improves. So, he questions, why isn’t it the same for Lyme?

Wilson and Boucher are part of an international group that has taken its concerns to the United Nations, alleging that Lyme patients are denied proper care and treatment, which is a human rights violation. And that medical and scientific experts trying to help patients access long-term antibiotics have become the targets of investigations and sanctions.

Mantha, the New Democrat MPP, knows of four Canadian doctors who were treating chronic Lyme here and moved their practices to the U.S. to avoid any hassles from the regulatory colleges.

“They just got frustrated with the system and picked up their practice and moved away,” he says. “They firmly believed people were suffering and went to a jurisdiction where they have the freedom and ability to treat people as they see fit.”

The blacklegged tick that can carry Lyme disease is typically the size of a sesame seed. The is a female which is larger than the male.
The blacklegged tick that can carry Lyme disease is typically the size of a sesame seed. The is a female which is larger than the male.  (Bernard Weil)

In Smith’s case, she couldn’t find a doctor who would treat her, so like many patients she turned to a naturopath and began herbal medication. But it didn’t help. The naturopath recommended more antibiotics, but Smith didn’t know a doctor who would prescribe them. Rather than go to B.C. — the only province where naturopaths can write prescriptions and where many patients travel for long-term antibiotic treatment — she went to Mount Kisco, N.Y., where a doctor treated her with several rounds of antibiotics.

A year later, many symptoms had improved, but not all of them. As she was unable to pay the costs of continuing treatment in the U.S., Smith’s naturopath had a new idea. She suggested a Toronto clinic that was taking patients with chronic Lyme and co-infections. There, doctors, naturopaths, osteopaths and nutritionists work together to treat the whole patient, not just the Lyme disease. Some services are covered by OHIP, such as doctor visits, but lab tests and medication are paid privately or through supplemental insurance.

Smith has been treated there since the summer of 2017 with a combination of herbal and antibiotic treatment. Blood work done there — testing is done in a Public Health Ontario lab — was negative for Lyme, but positive for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, another tick-borne disease.

Her doctor there, a family physician trained in emergency medicine, spoke with the Star on the condition that neither he nor the clinic be named. He says diagnosis needs to be a clinical decision, based on patient history. And while tests are helpful, they’re not definitive. He follows ILADS guidelines, and will prescribe long-term antibiotics, often more than one drug at a time.

“Many doctors and patients are uncomfortable with uncertainty, and unfortunately there is a lot of uncertainty with Lyme disease,” he says. “I will go through all the potential risks with long-term antibiotic therapy and if (patients) are in agreement we will go and start on a trial of therapy. And we monitor them closely and try to mitigate the risk as much as possible.”

To date, Smith has spent about $20,000 on treatment and drugs, in total. In the spring and summer, she was feeling better than she had in a long time, even getting her exercise bike and rowing machine out of the garage where they had been stored for years.

“I felt truly amazing, but some symptoms have slowly returned,” says Smith, whose health started declining in the fall. “It’s frustrating, but I remain optimistic … This will get figured out.”

Isabel Teotonio is a Toronto-based reporter covering education. Follow her on Twitter: @Izzy74


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Liberals changing Canada Summer Jobs attestation after reproductive rights controversy – National


The Liberals are changing the controversial Canada Summer Jobs attestation that required program applicants to attest respect for a range of established rights, including access to abortion.

Now, groups that work to undermine those rights or that promote discrimination simply won’t be eligible for funding.

READ MORE: Everything you need to know about the Canada Summer Jobs crackdown on anti-abortion groups

“The changes this year are really a reflection of the conversations we’ve been having with Canadians, with members of Parliament, with faith-based leaders and with progressive groups across the country,” said Employment Minister Patty Hajdu in an interview with Global News.

“At the end of the day, we are extremely pleased with how this landed. We think that we’ve managed to listen to Canadians and listen to a variety of voices.”

WATCH BELOW: Conservatives, Liberals trade jabs over Canada Summer Jobs program attestation

An announcement from Service Canada with more information about the changes is set to go out to MPs on Thursday.

The changes to the Canada Summer Jobs program will also allow all youths between the ages of 18 and 30 — not just students — apply for jobs funded through the program.

Last December, the government introduced a new attestation that required all employers seeking a Canada Summer Jobs grant to attest that “both the job and the organization’s core mandate respect individual human rights in Canada, including the values underlying the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as other rights.”

READ MORE: Canada Summer Jobs program will no longer fund anti-abortion, anti-gay groups

Those other rights “include reproductive rights and the right to be free from discrimination on the basis of sex, religion, race, national or ethnic origin, colour, mental or physical disability, sexual orientation or gender identity or expression.”

Religious groups and Conservative critics quickly cried foul, arguing that requiring employers to attest to what they deemed a “values test” breached their constitutional rights to freedom of religion and freedom of expression. Several anti-abortion groups that refused the attestation filed a lawsuit against the government in Federal Court; the lawsuit remains ongoing.

Federal officials argued the decision on whether to apply for funding is entirely voluntary, and employers had the choice not to do it.

WATCH BELOW: Employers should have no problem with new attestations on reproductive rights: Hajdu

Hajdu said that while the government had tried to make it clear the attestation wasn’t targeting “beliefs or values,” some people were still confused and uncomfortable.

“Last year, what we were trying to ensure was that money didn’t go towards activities that would in any way ask a kid to undermine or violate the rights that Canadians have fought for and won through hard legal battles,” she said.

“Despite our effort to make that case, many faith-based groups still felt it was uncomfortable for them to sign and so we wanted to make sure that we worked with faith-based groups, with leaders, but that we also worked with rights organizations to get it right, to make sure the attestation gets at the core of ensuring that any funding doesn’t support activities or projects that in any way undermine or restrict the exercise of rights legally protected in Canada.”

Under the new eligibility criteria being set out for applications this year, any employer wanting to use the money to hire youth for work that would undermine or restrict reproductive rights, promote intolerance or prejudice or that would otherwise discriminate on any prohibited grounds cannot receive funding.

COMMENTARY: Liberals will win the fight on Canada Summer Jobs program

Prohibited grounds for discrimination, as defined under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom, include sex, age, religion, race, ethic origin, any form of disability, sexual orientation or gender identity or expression.

All of those were originally covered by the attestation wording introduced last year.

However, the changes to the attestation set to be announced would essentially remove the responsibility of specifically attesting to those from the employer.

Instead, it will be up to Service Canada to assess applications and determine whether employers meet the criteria.

WATCH BELOW: Trudeau says no religious group will be barred from summer jobs grant

Hajdu says she had several one-on-one meetings with religious leaders earlier this year as well as subsequent group consultations on the issue.

Her staff has also been going back and forth in discussions about proposed language changes to the attestation in order to find wording that both gets to the root of the issue that the government wants to address and reflects concerns from religious groups that they were being judged on their values.

“They understood that objective, by and large, and I think felt very comfortable and happy that we were listening to their concerns, that we were so open to working with them,” she said.

“Certainly, we’ve been reaching back on a regular basis to propose various kinds of language that would get at those mutual goals, and I think, by and large, many faith-based groups are quite happy.”

WATCH BELOW: Trudeau’s fight on government grants and reproductive rights

The original attestation, put in place last year, was sparked by a series of media reports in spring 2017.

Those reports revealed that anti-abortion groups had been using the program to obtain tens of thousands of dollars in taxpayer money to advocate for the erosion of reproductive rights.

READ MORE: Anti-abortion group got $56K federal grant from Liberal MP

Liberal MP Iqra Khalid had approved $56,000 in 2017 to the local chapter of a group that is infamous for using graphic pictures of aborted fetuses in their efforts to curtail reproductive rights.

Given that Khalid had run under the pro-choice banner of the Trudeau Liberals, documents obtained by the Canadian Press under access to information laws showed that news caught Hajdu’s attention.

Rachael Harder, the Conservative status of women critic, was also found to have approved thousands in funding to similar groups and centres in her riding.

WATCH BELOW: Christian faith leader slams Justin Trudeau over summer job changes

By August 2017, Hajdu had directed her department to come up with ways to ensure the Canada Summer Jobs money went only to groups with “mandates that are consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and court decisions.”

The attestation was announced in December 2017.

READ MORE: Canada Summer Jobs attestation endorsed by 80 Canadian rights groups

While more than 80 human rights groups in Canada signed a declaration supporting the move, some religious groups and Conservative critics were outraged.

Hajdu would not comment when asked about whether the ongoing legal challenge was an impetus for the change to the 2019 attestation.

“I don’t have any information on that,” she said.

Employers can begin submitting their applications for 2019 funding on Dec. 13.

© 2018 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.


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New car-share company launching in Toronto following controversy over city restrictions


A Montreal-based car-share service is expanding to Toronto following months of debate over how the city would regulate the industry.

Communauto, which operates in more than a dozen cities, including Edmonton, Halifax, Ottawa, Montreal, and Paris, France, will be the first member to join Toronto’s « Free-Floating Car-Share Pilot, » which was officially launched in June. 

The delay was a result of another car-sharing service, Car2Go, pulling its service out of the city saying the pilot passed by council in April was overly restrictive rendering its service « inoperable. » Since then, the city has eased up on its residential parking restrictions for the 18-month pilot. 

« Now that this is available, it’s the reason why we can commit to Toronto, » said Communauto founder and CEO Benoît Robert. 

Car2Go angered some councillors and homeowners

The tension began when Car2Go started instructing its customers to park in any legal space, including in residential areas. That angered some councillors and homeowners who lived in neighbourhoods where street parking is scarce. 

Car2Go pulled its service out of the city, saying the pilot passed by council in April was overly restrictive. (Daimler AG)

So, the city decided to regulate the car-share industry by creating a pilot project to introduce regulations. After heated debates and delays, Car2Go announced it would stop operating in Toronto, calling the $1,500 parking permit fees « unprecedented » and rallying against a ban on car-share parking on residential streets where parking permits were issued at 95 per cent capacity or where there was a wait list for permits. 

Car2Go also spoke out against allowing councillors veto power over car-share parking on the streets in their wards. 

Loosened rules

Ward 19 Trinity-Spadina councillor Mike Layton made a push to loosen the rules. 

« We had many people who depended on this roaming car-share service in Toronto, » he said. « It allows my family to have a car only when we need a car. »

In July, council adopted updated regulations, which don’t allow for parking on streets where permit parking is at 100 per cent capacity, allowing for some flexibility on residential streets. Council also decided councillors could veto car-share parking in their wards, but only with advance warning to the company and a delay in the change taking effect. 

Company aims to reduce congestion

« The hope is a service like this allows people to own less cars, meaning, they’ll require less parking spaces on the street, »  said Layton. 

Robert, Communauto’s CEO, said he created the company to try and reduce congestion. « We know we have a huge impact on reduction on demand for parking and usage of cars. That’s our main goal. » 

He and John Tory are slated to announce the details of Communauto’s expansion into Toronto Tuesday morning. 

Mayoral contender Jennifer Keesmaat was measured in her reaction to a new car-share service coming to town. 

« It’s important we continue to facilitate lots of different choices for how people get around in the city, » she said. « But, the most important thing we can be doing is to facilitate transit. » 

Communauto says it expects to have 200 cars on the streets by early November.


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